Patchwork [1,of,5,clonebundles,V2] clonebundles: support for seeding clones from pre-generated bundles

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Submitter Gregory Szorc
Date Oct. 9, 2015, 7:33 p.m.
Message ID <d117d532ed0b3d03c8e4.1444419230@gps-mbp.local>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/10931/
State Accepted
Delegated to: Matt Mackall
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Gregory Szorc - Oct. 9, 2015, 7:33 p.m.
# HG changeset patch
# User Gregory Szorc <gregory.szorc@gmail.com>
# Date 1444414921 25200
#      Fri Oct 09 11:22:01 2015 -0700
# Node ID d117d532ed0b3d03c8e4fe85b819964669d1be1a
# Parent  6e715040c1725b5debce888c4f7d3fdbf55cc900
clonebundles: support for seeding clones from pre-generated bundles

Cloning can be an expensive operation for servers because the server
generates a bundle from existing repository data at request time. For
a large repository like mozilla-central, this consumes 4+ minutes
of CPU time on the server. It also results in significant network
utilization. Multiplied by hundreds or even thousands of clients and
the ensuing load can result in difficulties scaling the Mercurial server.

Despite generation of bundles being deterministic until the next
changeset is added, the generation of bundles to service a clone request
is not cached. Each clone thus performs redundant work. This is
wasteful.

This patch introduces the "clonebundles" extension and related
client-side functionality to help alleviate this deficiency. The
client-side feature is behind an experimental flag and is not enabled by
default.

It works as follows:

1) Server operator generates a bundle and makes it available on a
   server (likely HTTP).
2) Server operator defines the URL of a bundle file in a
   .hg/clonebundles.manifest file.
3) Client `hg clone`ing sees the server is advertising bundle URLs.
4) Client fetches and applies the advertised bundle.
5) Client performs equivalent of `hg pull` to fetch changes made since
   the bundle was created.

Essentially, the server performs the expensive work of generating a
bundle once and all subsequent clones fetch a static file from
somewhere. Scaling static file serving is a much more manageable
problem than scaling a Python application like Mercurial. Assuming your
repository grows less than 1% per day, the end result is 99+% of CPU
and network load from clones is eliminated, allowing Mercurial servers
to scale more easily. Serving static files also means data can be
transferred to clients as fast as they can consume it, rather than as
fast as servers can generate it. This makes clones faster.

Mozilla has implemented similar functionality of this patch on
hg.mozilla.org using a custom extension. We are hosting bundle files in
Amazon S3 and CloudFront (a CDN) and have successfully offloaded
>1 TB/day in data transfer from hg.mozilla.org, freeing up significant
bandwidth and CPU resources. The positive impact has been stellar and
I believe it has proved its value to be included in Mercurial core. I
feel it is important for the client-side support to be enabled in core
by default because it means that clients will get faster, more reliable
clones and will enable server operators to reduce load without
requiring any client-side configuration changes (assuming clients are
up to date, of course).

The scope of this feature is narrowly and specifically tailored to
cloning, despite "serve pulls from pre-generated bundles" being a valid
and useful feature. I would eventually like for Mercurial servers to
support transferring *all* repository data via statically hosted files.
You could imagine a server that siphons all pushed data to bundle files
and instructs clients to apply a stream of bundles to reconstruct all
repository data. This feature, while useful and powerful, is
significantly more work to implement because it requires the server
component have awareness of discovery and a mapping of which changesets
are in which files. Full, clone bundles, by contrast, are much simpler.

The wire protocol command is named "clonebundles" instead of something
more generic like "staticbundles" to leave the door open for a new, more
powerful and more generic server-side component with minimal backwards
compatibility implications. The name "bundleclone" is used by Mozilla's
extension and would cause problems since there are subtle differences
in Mozilla's extension.

Mozilla's experience with this idea has taught us that some form of
"content negotiation" is required. Not all clients will support all
bundle formats or even URLs (advanced TLS requirements, etc). To ensure
the highest uptake possible, a server needs to advertise multiple
versions of bundles and clients need to be able to choose the most
appropriate from that list one. The "attributes" in each
server-advertised entry facilitate this filtering and sorting. Their
use will become apparent in subsequent patches.

Initial inspiration and credit for the idea of cloning from static files
belongs to Augie Fackler and his "lookaside clone" extension proof of
concept.
Gregory Szorc - Oct. 9, 2015, 7:41 p.m.
On Fri, Oct 9, 2015 at 12:33 PM, Gregory Szorc <gregory.szorc@gmail.com>
wrote:

> # HG changeset patch
> # User Gregory Szorc <gregory.szorc@gmail.com>
> # Date 1444414921 25200
> #      Fri Oct 09 11:22:01 2015 -0700
> # Node ID d117d532ed0b3d03c8e4fe85b819964669d1be1a
> # Parent  6e715040c1725b5debce888c4f7d3fdbf55cc900
> clonebundles: support for seeding clones from pre-generated bundles
>


Augie and Pierre-Yves and I video conferenced about this on Tuesday. The
big change is that client-side support is disabled by default and hidden
behind an experimental flag. We intend to leave it this way until at least
3.7.

Once this series is queued, I will send a patch to have the server
extension emit a bundle2 output part informing the client about said config
option such that servers that deploy this may nudge clients into testing
the feature. I should probably also write a wall of text with instructions
for server operators.

Pierre-Yves isn't going to like the lack of support for bundle2. But I'm
afraid I don't see a way to support it given the lack of a clear and
future-proof method for checking compatibility with pre-generated bundle2
files. Read the commit message in patch 2. Since the feature is now
experimental, I don't see a major problem initially landing without bundle2
support. We can and should add it before the feature is enabled by default.



> Cloning can be an expensive operation for servers because the server
> generates a bundle from existing repository data at request time. For
> a large repository like mozilla-central, this consumes 4+ minutes
> of CPU time on the server. It also results in significant network
> utilization. Multiplied by hundreds or even thousands of clients and
> the ensuing load can result in difficulties scaling the Mercurial server.
>
> Despite generation of bundles being deterministic until the next
> changeset is added, the generation of bundles to service a clone request
> is not cached. Each clone thus performs redundant work. This is
> wasteful.
>
> This patch introduces the "clonebundles" extension and related
> client-side functionality to help alleviate this deficiency. The
> client-side feature is behind an experimental flag and is not enabled by
> default.
>
> It works as follows:
>
> 1) Server operator generates a bundle and makes it available on a
>    server (likely HTTP).
> 2) Server operator defines the URL of a bundle file in a
>    .hg/clonebundles.manifest file.
> 3) Client `hg clone`ing sees the server is advertising bundle URLs.
> 4) Client fetches and applies the advertised bundle.
> 5) Client performs equivalent of `hg pull` to fetch changes made since
>    the bundle was created.
>
> Essentially, the server performs the expensive work of generating a
> bundle once and all subsequent clones fetch a static file from
> somewhere. Scaling static file serving is a much more manageable
> problem than scaling a Python application like Mercurial. Assuming your
> repository grows less than 1% per day, the end result is 99+% of CPU
> and network load from clones is eliminated, allowing Mercurial servers
> to scale more easily. Serving static files also means data can be
> transferred to clients as fast as they can consume it, rather than as
> fast as servers can generate it. This makes clones faster.
>
> Mozilla has implemented similar functionality of this patch on
> hg.mozilla.org using a custom extension. We are hosting bundle files in
> Amazon S3 and CloudFront (a CDN) and have successfully offloaded
> >1 TB/day in data transfer from hg.mozilla.org, freeing up significant
> bandwidth and CPU resources. The positive impact has been stellar and
> I believe it has proved its value to be included in Mercurial core. I
> feel it is important for the client-side support to be enabled in core
> by default because it means that clients will get faster, more reliable
> clones and will enable server operators to reduce load without
> requiring any client-side configuration changes (assuming clients are
> up to date, of course).
>
> The scope of this feature is narrowly and specifically tailored to
> cloning, despite "serve pulls from pre-generated bundles" being a valid
> and useful feature. I would eventually like for Mercurial servers to
> support transferring *all* repository data via statically hosted files.
> You could imagine a server that siphons all pushed data to bundle files
> and instructs clients to apply a stream of bundles to reconstruct all
> repository data. This feature, while useful and powerful, is
> significantly more work to implement because it requires the server
> component have awareness of discovery and a mapping of which changesets
> are in which files. Full, clone bundles, by contrast, are much simpler.
>
> The wire protocol command is named "clonebundles" instead of something
> more generic like "staticbundles" to leave the door open for a new, more
> powerful and more generic server-side component with minimal backwards
> compatibility implications. The name "bundleclone" is used by Mozilla's
> extension and would cause problems since there are subtle differences
> in Mozilla's extension.
>
> Mozilla's experience with this idea has taught us that some form of
> "content negotiation" is required. Not all clients will support all
> bundle formats or even URLs (advanced TLS requirements, etc). To ensure
> the highest uptake possible, a server needs to advertise multiple
> versions of bundles and clients need to be able to choose the most
> appropriate from that list one. The "attributes" in each
> server-advertised entry facilitate this filtering and sorting. Their
> use will become apparent in subsequent patches.
>
> Initial inspiration and credit for the idea of cloning from static files
> belongs to Augie Fackler and his "lookaside clone" extension proof of
> concept.
>
> diff --git a/hgext/clonebundles.py b/hgext/clonebundles.py
> new file mode 100644
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/hgext/clonebundles.py
> @@ -0,0 +1,69 @@
> +# This software may be used and distributed according to the terms of the
> +# GNU General Public License version 2 or any later version.
> +
> +"""server side extension to advertise pre-generated bundles to seed
> clones.
> +
> +The extension essentially serves the content of a
> .hg/clonebundles.manifest
> +file to clients that request it.
> +
> +The clonebundles.manifest file contains a list of URLs and attributes.
> URLs
> +hold pre-generated bundles that a client fetches and applies. After
> applying
> +the pre-generated bundle, the client will connect back to the original
> server
> +and pull data not in the pre-generated bundle.
> +
> +Manifest File Format:
> +
> +The manifest file contains a newline (\n) delimited list of entries.
> +
> +Each line in this file defines an available bundle. Lines have the format:
> +
> +    <URL> [<key>=<value]
> +
> +That is, a URL followed by extra metadata describing it. Metadata keys and
> +values should be URL encoded.
> +
> +This metadata is optional. It is up to server operators to populate this
> +metadata.
> +
> +Keys in UPPERCASE are reserved for use by Mercurial. All non-uppercase
> keys
> +can be used by site installations.
> +
> +The server operator is responsible for generating the bundle manifest
> file.
> +
> +Metadata Attributes:
> +
> +TBD
> +"""
> +
> +from mercurial import (
> +    extensions,
> +    wireproto,
> +)
> +
> +testedwith = 'internal'
> +
> +def capabilities(orig, repo, proto):
> +    caps = orig(repo, proto)
> +
> +    # Only advertise if a manifest exists. This does add some I/O to
> requests.
> +    # But this should be cheaper than a wasted network round trip due to
> +    # missing file.
> +    if repo.opener.exists('clonebundles.manifest'):
> +        caps.append('clonebundles')
> +
> +    return caps
> +
> +@wireproto.wireprotocommand('clonebundles', '')
> +def bundles(repo, proto):
> +    """Server command for returning info for available bundles to seed
> clones.
> +
> +    Clients will parse this response and determine what bundle to fetch.
> +
> +    Other extensions may wrap this command to filter or dynamically emit
> +    data depending on the request. e.g. you could advertise URLs for
> +    the closest data center given the client's IP address.
> +    """
> +    return repo.opener.tryread('clonebundles.manifest')
> +
> +def extsetup(ui):
> +    extensions.wrapfunction(wireproto, '_capabilities', capabilities)
> diff --git a/mercurial/exchange.py b/mercurial/exchange.py
> --- a/mercurial/exchange.py
> +++ b/mercurial/exchange.py
> @@ -6,14 +6,15 @@
>  # GNU General Public License version 2 or any later version.
>
>  from i18n import _
>  from node import hex, nullid
> -import errno, urllib
> +import errno, urllib, urllib2
>  import util, scmutil, changegroup, base85, error
>  import discovery, phases, obsolete, bookmarks as bookmod, bundle2, pushkey
>  import lock as lockmod
>  import streamclone
>  import tags
> +import url as urlmod
>
>  def readbundle(ui, fh, fname, vfs=None):
>      header = changegroup.readexactly(fh, 4)
>
> @@ -972,8 +973,11 @@ def pull(repo, remote, heads=None, force
>      lock = pullop.repo.lock()
>      try:
>          pullop.trmanager = transactionmanager(repo, 'pull', remote.url())
>          streamclone.maybeperformlegacystreamclone(pullop)
> +        # This should ideally be in _pullbundle2(). However, it needs to
> run
> +        # before discovery to avoid extra work.
> +        _maybeapplyclonebundle(pullop)
>          _pulldiscovery(pullop)
>          if pullop.canusebundle2:
>              _pullbundle2(pullop)
>          _pullchangeset(pullop)
> @@ -1498,4 +1502,89 @@ def unbundle(repo, cg, heads, source, ur
>          lockmod.release(lockandtr[2], lockandtr[1], lockandtr[0])
>          if recordout is not None:
>              recordout(repo.ui.popbuffer())
>      return r
> +
> +def _maybeapplyclonebundle(pullop):
> +    """Apply a clone bundle from a remote, if possible."""
> +
> +    repo = pullop.repo
> +    remote = pullop.remote
> +
> +    if not repo.ui.configbool('experimental', 'clonebundles', False):
> +        return
> +
> +    if pullop.heads:
> +        return
> +
> +    if not remote.capable('clonebundles'):
> +        return
> +
> +    res = remote._call('clonebundles')
> +    entries = parseclonebundlesmanifest(res)
> +
> +    # TODO filter entries by supported features.
> +    # TODO sort entries by user preferences.
> +
> +    if not entries:
> +        repo.ui.note(_('no clone bundles available on remote; '
> +                       'falling back to regular clone\n'))
> +        return
> +
> +    url = entries[0]['URL']
> +    repo.ui.status(_('applying clone bundle from %s\n') % url)
> +    if trypullbundlefromurl(repo.ui, repo, url):
> +        repo.ui.status(_('finished applying clone bundle\n'))
> +    # Bundle failed.
> +    #
> +    # We abort by default to avoid the thundering herd of
> +    # clients flooding a server that was expecting expensive
> +    # clone load to be offloaded.
> +    elif repo.ui.configbool('ui', 'clonebundlefallback', False):
> +        repo.ui.warn(_('falling back to normal clone\n'))
> +    else:
> +        raise util.Abort(_('error applying bundle'),
> +                         hint=_('consider contacting the server '
> +                                'operator if this error persists'))
> +
> +def parseclonebundlesmanifest(s):
> +    """Parses the raw text of a clone bundles manifest.
> +
> +    Returns a list of dicts. The dicts have a ``URL`` key corresponding
> +    to the URL and other keys are the attributes for the entry.
> +    """
> +    m = []
> +    for line in s.splitlines():
> +        fields = line.split()
> +        if not fields:
> +            continue
> +        attrs = {'URL': fields[0]}
> +        for rawattr in fields[1:]:
> +            key, value = rawattr.split('=', 1)
> +            attrs[urllib.unquote(key)] = urllib.unquote(value)
> +
> +        m.append(attrs)
> +
> +    return m
> +
> +def trypullbundlefromurl(ui, repo, url):
> +    """Attempt to apply a bundle from a URL."""
> +    lock = repo.lock()
> +    try:
> +        tr = repo.transaction('bundleurl')
> +        try:
> +            try:
> +                fh = urlmod.open(ui, url)
> +                cg = readbundle(ui, fh, 'stream')
> +                changegroup.addchangegroup(repo, cg, 'clonebundles', url)
> +                tr.close()
> +                return True
> +            except urllib2.HTTPError as e:
> +                ui.warn(_('HTTP error fetching bundle: %s\n') % str(e))
> +            except urllib2.URLError as e:
> +                ui.warn(_('error fetching bundle: %s\n') % e.reason)
> +
> +            return False
> +        finally:
> +            tr.release()
> +    finally:
> +        lock.release()
> diff --git a/mercurial/help/config.txt b/mercurial/help/config.txt
> --- a/mercurial/help/config.txt
> +++ b/mercurial/help/config.txt
> @@ -1411,8 +1411,23 @@ User interface controls.
>      be prompted to enter a username. If no username is entered, the
>      default ``USER@HOST`` is used instead.
>      (default: False)
>
> +``clonebundlefallback``
> +    Whether failure to apply an advertised "clone bundle" from a server
> +    should result in fallback to a regular clone.
> +
> +    This is disabled by default because servers advertising "clone
> +    bundles" often do so to reduce server load. If advertised bundles
> +    start mass failing and clients automatically fall back to a regular
> +    clone, this would add significant and unexpected load to the server
> +    since the server is expecting clone operations to be offloaded to
> +    pre-generated bundles. Failing fast (the default behavior) ensures
> +    clients don't overwhelm the server when "clone bundle" application
> +    fails.
> +
> +    (default: False)
> +
>  ``commitsubrepos``
>      Whether to commit modified subrepositories when committing the
>      parent repository. If False and one subrepository has uncommitted
>      changes, abort the commit.
> diff --git a/tests/test-clonebundles.t b/tests/test-clonebundles.t
> new file mode 100644
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/tests/test-clonebundles.t
> @@ -0,0 +1,143 @@
> +Set up a server
> +
> +  $ hg init server
> +  $ cd server
> +  $ cat >> .hg/hgrc << EOF
> +  > [extensions]
> +  > clonebundles =
> +  > EOF
> +
> +  $ touch foo
> +  $ hg -q commit -A -m 'add foo'
> +  $ touch bar
> +  $ hg -q commit -A -m 'add bar'
> +
> +  $ hg serve -d -p $HGPORT --pid-file hg.pid --accesslog access.log
> +  $ cat hg.pid >> $DAEMON_PIDS
> +  $ cd ..
> +
> +Feature disabled by default
> +(client should not request manifest)
> +
> +  $ hg clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT feature-disabled
> +  requesting all changes
> +  adding changesets
> +  adding manifests
> +  adding file changes
> +  added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 2 files
> +
> +  $ cat server/access.log
> +  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=capabilities HTTP/1.1" 200 - (glob)
> +  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=batch HTTP/1.1" 200 -
> x-hgarg-1:cmds=heads+%3Bknown+nodes%3D (glob)
> +  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=getbundle HTTP/1.1" 200 -
> x-hgarg-1:bundlecaps=HG20%2Cbundle2%3DHG20%250Achangegroup%253D01%252C02%250Adigests%253Dmd5%252Csha1%252Csha512%250Aerror%253Dabort%252Cunsupportedcontent%252Cpushraced%252Cpushkey%250Ahgtagsfnodes%250Alistkeys%250Apushkey%250Aremote-changegroup%253Dhttp%252Chttps&cg=1&common=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000&heads=aaff8d2ffbbf07a46dd1f05d8ae7877e3f56e2a2&listkeys=phase%2Cbookmarks
> (glob)
> +  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=listkeys HTTP/1.1" 200 -
> x-hgarg-1:namespace=phases (glob)
> +
> +  $ cat >> $HGRCPATH << EOF
> +  > [experimental]
> +  > clonebundles = true
> +  > EOF
> +
> +Missing manifest should not result in server lookup
> +
> +  $ hg --verbose clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT no-manifest
> +  requesting all changes
> +  adding changesets
> +  adding manifests
> +  adding file changes
> +  added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 2 files
> +
> +  $ tail -n 4 server/access.log
> +  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=capabilities HTTP/1.1" 200 - (glob)
> +  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=batch HTTP/1.1" 200 -
> x-hgarg-1:cmds=heads+%3Bknown+nodes%3D (glob)
> +  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=getbundle HTTP/1.1" 200 -
> x-hgarg-1:bundlecaps=HG20%2Cbundle2%3DHG20%250Achangegroup%253D01%252C02%250Adigests%253Dmd5%252Csha1%252Csha512%250Aerror%253Dabort%252Cunsupportedcontent%252Cpushraced%252Cpushkey%250Ahgtagsfnodes%250Alistkeys%250Apushkey%250Aremote-changegroup%253Dhttp%252Chttps&cg=1&common=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000&heads=aaff8d2ffbbf07a46dd1f05d8ae7877e3f56e2a2&listkeys=phase%2Cbookmarks
> (glob)
> +  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=listkeys HTTP/1.1" 200 -
> x-hgarg-1:namespace=phases (glob)
> +
> +Empty manifest file results in retrieval
> +(the extension only checks if the manifest file exists)
> +
> +  $ touch server/.hg/clonebundles.manifest
> +  $ hg --verbose clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT empty-manifest
> +  no clone bundles available on remote; falling back to regular clone
> +  requesting all changes
> +  adding changesets
> +  adding manifests
> +  adding file changes
> +  added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 2 files
> +
> +Manifest file with invalid URL aborts
> +
> +  $ echo 'http://does.not.exist/bundle.hg' >
> server/.hg/clonebundles.manifest
> +  $ hg clone http://localhost:$HGPORT 404-url
> +  applying clone bundle from http://does.not.exist/bundle.hg
> +  error fetching bundle: [Errno 8] nodename nor servname provided, or not
> known
> +  abort: error applying bundle
> +  (consider contacting the server operator if this error persists)
> +  [255]
> +
> +Server is not running aborts
> +
> +  $ echo "http://localhost:$HGPORT1/bundle.hg" >
> server/.hg/clonebundles.manifest
> +  $ hg clone http://localhost:$HGPORT server-not-runner
> +  applying clone bundle from http://localhost:$HGPORT1/bundle.hg
> +  error fetching bundle: [Errno 61] Connection refused
> +  abort: error applying bundle
> +  (consider contacting the server operator if this error persists)
> +  [255]
> +
> +Server returns 404
> +
> +  $ python $TESTDIR/dumbhttp.py -p $HGPORT1 --pid http.pid
> +  $ cat http.pid >> $DAEMON_PIDS
> +  $ hg clone http://localhost:$HGPORT running-404
> +  applying clone bundle from http://localhost:$HGPORT1/bundle.hg
> +  HTTP error fetching bundle: HTTP Error 404: File not found
> +  abort: error applying bundle
> +  (consider contacting the server operator if this error persists)
> +  [255]
> +
> +We can override failure to fall back to regular clone
> +
> +  $ hg --config ui.clonebundlefallback=true clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT
> 404-fallback
> +  applying clone bundle from http://localhost:$HGPORT1/bundle.hg
> +  HTTP error fetching bundle: HTTP Error 404: File not found
> +  falling back to normal clone
> +  requesting all changes
> +  adding changesets
> +  adding manifests
> +  adding file changes
> +  added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 2 files
> +
> +Bundle with partial content works
> +
> +  $ hg -R server bundle --type gzip --base null -r 53245c60e682 partial.hg
> +  1 changesets found
> +
> +  $ echo "http://localhost:$HGPORT1/partial.hg" >
> server/.hg/clonebundles.manifest
> +  $ hg clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT partial-bundle
> +  applying clone bundle from http://localhost:$HGPORT1/partial.hg
> +  adding changesets
> +  adding manifests
> +  adding file changes
> +  added 1 changesets with 1 changes to 1 files
> +  finished applying clone bundle
> +  searching for changes
> +  adding changesets
> +  adding manifests
> +  adding file changes
> +  added 1 changesets with 1 changes to 1 files
> +
> +Bundle with full content works
> +
> +  $ hg -R server bundle --type gzip --base null -r tip full.hg
> +  2 changesets found
> +
> +  $ echo "http://localhost:$HGPORT1/full.hg" >
> server/.hg/clonebundles.manifest
> +  $ hg clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT full-bundle
> +  applying clone bundle from http://localhost:$HGPORT1/full.hg
> +  adding changesets
> +  adding manifests
> +  adding file changes
> +  added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 2 files
> +  finished applying clone bundle
> +  searching for changes
> +  no changes found
> diff --git a/tests/test-help.t b/tests/test-help.t
> --- a/tests/test-help.t
> +++ b/tests/test-help.t
> @@ -248,8 +248,10 @@ Test extension help:
>         blackbox      log repository events to a blackbox for debugging
>         bugzilla      hooks for integrating with the Bugzilla bug tracker
>         censor        erase file content at a given revision
>         churn         command to display statistics about repository
> history
> +       clonebundles  server side extension to advertise pre-generated
> bundles to
> +                     seed clones.
>         color         colorize output from some commands
>         convert       import revisions from foreign VCS repositories into
>                       Mercurial
>         eol           automatically manage newlines in repository files
> @@ -1068,8 +1070,10 @@ Test keyword search help
>     update    update working directory (or switch revisions)
>
>    Extensions:
>
> +   clonebundles server side extension to advertise pre-generated bundles
> to seed
> +                clones.
>     prefixedname matched against word "clone"
>     relink       recreates hardlinks between repository clones
>
>    Extension Commands:
>

Patch

diff --git a/hgext/clonebundles.py b/hgext/clonebundles.py
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hgext/clonebundles.py
@@ -0,0 +1,69 @@ 
+# This software may be used and distributed according to the terms of the
+# GNU General Public License version 2 or any later version.
+
+"""server side extension to advertise pre-generated bundles to seed clones.
+
+The extension essentially serves the content of a .hg/clonebundles.manifest
+file to clients that request it.
+
+The clonebundles.manifest file contains a list of URLs and attributes. URLs
+hold pre-generated bundles that a client fetches and applies. After applying
+the pre-generated bundle, the client will connect back to the original server
+and pull data not in the pre-generated bundle.
+
+Manifest File Format:
+
+The manifest file contains a newline (\n) delimited list of entries.
+
+Each line in this file defines an available bundle. Lines have the format:
+
+    <URL> [<key>=<value]
+
+That is, a URL followed by extra metadata describing it. Metadata keys and
+values should be URL encoded.
+
+This metadata is optional. It is up to server operators to populate this
+metadata.
+
+Keys in UPPERCASE are reserved for use by Mercurial. All non-uppercase keys
+can be used by site installations.
+
+The server operator is responsible for generating the bundle manifest file.
+
+Metadata Attributes:
+
+TBD
+"""
+
+from mercurial import (
+    extensions,
+    wireproto,
+)
+
+testedwith = 'internal'
+
+def capabilities(orig, repo, proto):
+    caps = orig(repo, proto)
+
+    # Only advertise if a manifest exists. This does add some I/O to requests.
+    # But this should be cheaper than a wasted network round trip due to
+    # missing file.
+    if repo.opener.exists('clonebundles.manifest'):
+        caps.append('clonebundles')
+
+    return caps
+
+@wireproto.wireprotocommand('clonebundles', '')
+def bundles(repo, proto):
+    """Server command for returning info for available bundles to seed clones.
+
+    Clients will parse this response and determine what bundle to fetch.
+
+    Other extensions may wrap this command to filter or dynamically emit
+    data depending on the request. e.g. you could advertise URLs for
+    the closest data center given the client's IP address.
+    """
+    return repo.opener.tryread('clonebundles.manifest')
+
+def extsetup(ui):
+    extensions.wrapfunction(wireproto, '_capabilities', capabilities)
diff --git a/mercurial/exchange.py b/mercurial/exchange.py
--- a/mercurial/exchange.py
+++ b/mercurial/exchange.py
@@ -6,14 +6,15 @@ 
 # GNU General Public License version 2 or any later version.
 
 from i18n import _
 from node import hex, nullid
-import errno, urllib
+import errno, urllib, urllib2
 import util, scmutil, changegroup, base85, error
 import discovery, phases, obsolete, bookmarks as bookmod, bundle2, pushkey
 import lock as lockmod
 import streamclone
 import tags
+import url as urlmod
 
 def readbundle(ui, fh, fname, vfs=None):
     header = changegroup.readexactly(fh, 4)
 
@@ -972,8 +973,11 @@  def pull(repo, remote, heads=None, force
     lock = pullop.repo.lock()
     try:
         pullop.trmanager = transactionmanager(repo, 'pull', remote.url())
         streamclone.maybeperformlegacystreamclone(pullop)
+        # This should ideally be in _pullbundle2(). However, it needs to run
+        # before discovery to avoid extra work.
+        _maybeapplyclonebundle(pullop)
         _pulldiscovery(pullop)
         if pullop.canusebundle2:
             _pullbundle2(pullop)
         _pullchangeset(pullop)
@@ -1498,4 +1502,89 @@  def unbundle(repo, cg, heads, source, ur
         lockmod.release(lockandtr[2], lockandtr[1], lockandtr[0])
         if recordout is not None:
             recordout(repo.ui.popbuffer())
     return r
+
+def _maybeapplyclonebundle(pullop):
+    """Apply a clone bundle from a remote, if possible."""
+
+    repo = pullop.repo
+    remote = pullop.remote
+
+    if not repo.ui.configbool('experimental', 'clonebundles', False):
+        return
+
+    if pullop.heads:
+        return
+
+    if not remote.capable('clonebundles'):
+        return
+
+    res = remote._call('clonebundles')
+    entries = parseclonebundlesmanifest(res)
+
+    # TODO filter entries by supported features.
+    # TODO sort entries by user preferences.
+
+    if not entries:
+        repo.ui.note(_('no clone bundles available on remote; '
+                       'falling back to regular clone\n'))
+        return
+
+    url = entries[0]['URL']
+    repo.ui.status(_('applying clone bundle from %s\n') % url)
+    if trypullbundlefromurl(repo.ui, repo, url):
+        repo.ui.status(_('finished applying clone bundle\n'))
+    # Bundle failed.
+    #
+    # We abort by default to avoid the thundering herd of
+    # clients flooding a server that was expecting expensive
+    # clone load to be offloaded.
+    elif repo.ui.configbool('ui', 'clonebundlefallback', False):
+        repo.ui.warn(_('falling back to normal clone\n'))
+    else:
+        raise util.Abort(_('error applying bundle'),
+                         hint=_('consider contacting the server '
+                                'operator if this error persists'))
+
+def parseclonebundlesmanifest(s):
+    """Parses the raw text of a clone bundles manifest.
+
+    Returns a list of dicts. The dicts have a ``URL`` key corresponding
+    to the URL and other keys are the attributes for the entry.
+    """
+    m = []
+    for line in s.splitlines():
+        fields = line.split()
+        if not fields:
+            continue
+        attrs = {'URL': fields[0]}
+        for rawattr in fields[1:]:
+            key, value = rawattr.split('=', 1)
+            attrs[urllib.unquote(key)] = urllib.unquote(value)
+
+        m.append(attrs)
+
+    return m
+
+def trypullbundlefromurl(ui, repo, url):
+    """Attempt to apply a bundle from a URL."""
+    lock = repo.lock()
+    try:
+        tr = repo.transaction('bundleurl')
+        try:
+            try:
+                fh = urlmod.open(ui, url)
+                cg = readbundle(ui, fh, 'stream')
+                changegroup.addchangegroup(repo, cg, 'clonebundles', url)
+                tr.close()
+                return True
+            except urllib2.HTTPError as e:
+                ui.warn(_('HTTP error fetching bundle: %s\n') % str(e))
+            except urllib2.URLError as e:
+                ui.warn(_('error fetching bundle: %s\n') % e.reason)
+
+            return False
+        finally:
+            tr.release()
+    finally:
+        lock.release()
diff --git a/mercurial/help/config.txt b/mercurial/help/config.txt
--- a/mercurial/help/config.txt
+++ b/mercurial/help/config.txt
@@ -1411,8 +1411,23 @@  User interface controls.
     be prompted to enter a username. If no username is entered, the
     default ``USER@HOST`` is used instead.
     (default: False)
 
+``clonebundlefallback``
+    Whether failure to apply an advertised "clone bundle" from a server
+    should result in fallback to a regular clone.
+
+    This is disabled by default because servers advertising "clone
+    bundles" often do so to reduce server load. If advertised bundles
+    start mass failing and clients automatically fall back to a regular
+    clone, this would add significant and unexpected load to the server
+    since the server is expecting clone operations to be offloaded to
+    pre-generated bundles. Failing fast (the default behavior) ensures
+    clients don't overwhelm the server when "clone bundle" application
+    fails.
+
+    (default: False)
+
 ``commitsubrepos``
     Whether to commit modified subrepositories when committing the
     parent repository. If False and one subrepository has uncommitted
     changes, abort the commit.
diff --git a/tests/test-clonebundles.t b/tests/test-clonebundles.t
new file mode 100644
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tests/test-clonebundles.t
@@ -0,0 +1,143 @@ 
+Set up a server
+
+  $ hg init server
+  $ cd server
+  $ cat >> .hg/hgrc << EOF
+  > [extensions]
+  > clonebundles =
+  > EOF
+
+  $ touch foo
+  $ hg -q commit -A -m 'add foo'
+  $ touch bar
+  $ hg -q commit -A -m 'add bar'
+
+  $ hg serve -d -p $HGPORT --pid-file hg.pid --accesslog access.log
+  $ cat hg.pid >> $DAEMON_PIDS
+  $ cd ..
+
+Feature disabled by default
+(client should not request manifest)
+
+  $ hg clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT feature-disabled
+  requesting all changes
+  adding changesets
+  adding manifests
+  adding file changes
+  added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 2 files
+
+  $ cat server/access.log
+  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=capabilities HTTP/1.1" 200 - (glob)
+  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=batch HTTP/1.1" 200 - x-hgarg-1:cmds=heads+%3Bknown+nodes%3D (glob)
+  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=getbundle HTTP/1.1" 200 - x-hgarg-1:bundlecaps=HG20%2Cbundle2%3DHG20%250Achangegroup%253D01%252C02%250Adigests%253Dmd5%252Csha1%252Csha512%250Aerror%253Dabort%252Cunsupportedcontent%252Cpushraced%252Cpushkey%250Ahgtagsfnodes%250Alistkeys%250Apushkey%250Aremote-changegroup%253Dhttp%252Chttps&cg=1&common=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000&heads=aaff8d2ffbbf07a46dd1f05d8ae7877e3f56e2a2&listkeys=phase%2Cbookmarks (glob)
+  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=listkeys HTTP/1.1" 200 - x-hgarg-1:namespace=phases (glob)
+
+  $ cat >> $HGRCPATH << EOF
+  > [experimental]
+  > clonebundles = true
+  > EOF
+
+Missing manifest should not result in server lookup
+
+  $ hg --verbose clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT no-manifest
+  requesting all changes
+  adding changesets
+  adding manifests
+  adding file changes
+  added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 2 files
+
+  $ tail -n 4 server/access.log
+  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=capabilities HTTP/1.1" 200 - (glob)
+  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=batch HTTP/1.1" 200 - x-hgarg-1:cmds=heads+%3Bknown+nodes%3D (glob)
+  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=getbundle HTTP/1.1" 200 - x-hgarg-1:bundlecaps=HG20%2Cbundle2%3DHG20%250Achangegroup%253D01%252C02%250Adigests%253Dmd5%252Csha1%252Csha512%250Aerror%253Dabort%252Cunsupportedcontent%252Cpushraced%252Cpushkey%250Ahgtagsfnodes%250Alistkeys%250Apushkey%250Aremote-changegroup%253Dhttp%252Chttps&cg=1&common=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000&heads=aaff8d2ffbbf07a46dd1f05d8ae7877e3f56e2a2&listkeys=phase%2Cbookmarks (glob)
+  * - - [*] "GET /?cmd=listkeys HTTP/1.1" 200 - x-hgarg-1:namespace=phases (glob)
+
+Empty manifest file results in retrieval
+(the extension only checks if the manifest file exists)
+
+  $ touch server/.hg/clonebundles.manifest
+  $ hg --verbose clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT empty-manifest
+  no clone bundles available on remote; falling back to regular clone
+  requesting all changes
+  adding changesets
+  adding manifests
+  adding file changes
+  added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 2 files
+
+Manifest file with invalid URL aborts
+
+  $ echo 'http://does.not.exist/bundle.hg' > server/.hg/clonebundles.manifest
+  $ hg clone http://localhost:$HGPORT 404-url
+  applying clone bundle from http://does.not.exist/bundle.hg
+  error fetching bundle: [Errno 8] nodename nor servname provided, or not known
+  abort: error applying bundle
+  (consider contacting the server operator if this error persists)
+  [255]
+
+Server is not running aborts
+
+  $ echo "http://localhost:$HGPORT1/bundle.hg" > server/.hg/clonebundles.manifest
+  $ hg clone http://localhost:$HGPORT server-not-runner
+  applying clone bundle from http://localhost:$HGPORT1/bundle.hg
+  error fetching bundle: [Errno 61] Connection refused
+  abort: error applying bundle
+  (consider contacting the server operator if this error persists)
+  [255]
+
+Server returns 404
+
+  $ python $TESTDIR/dumbhttp.py -p $HGPORT1 --pid http.pid
+  $ cat http.pid >> $DAEMON_PIDS
+  $ hg clone http://localhost:$HGPORT running-404
+  applying clone bundle from http://localhost:$HGPORT1/bundle.hg
+  HTTP error fetching bundle: HTTP Error 404: File not found
+  abort: error applying bundle
+  (consider contacting the server operator if this error persists)
+  [255]
+
+We can override failure to fall back to regular clone
+
+  $ hg --config ui.clonebundlefallback=true clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT 404-fallback
+  applying clone bundle from http://localhost:$HGPORT1/bundle.hg
+  HTTP error fetching bundle: HTTP Error 404: File not found
+  falling back to normal clone
+  requesting all changes
+  adding changesets
+  adding manifests
+  adding file changes
+  added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 2 files
+
+Bundle with partial content works
+
+  $ hg -R server bundle --type gzip --base null -r 53245c60e682 partial.hg
+  1 changesets found
+
+  $ echo "http://localhost:$HGPORT1/partial.hg" > server/.hg/clonebundles.manifest
+  $ hg clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT partial-bundle
+  applying clone bundle from http://localhost:$HGPORT1/partial.hg
+  adding changesets
+  adding manifests
+  adding file changes
+  added 1 changesets with 1 changes to 1 files
+  finished applying clone bundle
+  searching for changes
+  adding changesets
+  adding manifests
+  adding file changes
+  added 1 changesets with 1 changes to 1 files
+
+Bundle with full content works
+
+  $ hg -R server bundle --type gzip --base null -r tip full.hg
+  2 changesets found
+
+  $ echo "http://localhost:$HGPORT1/full.hg" > server/.hg/clonebundles.manifest
+  $ hg clone -U http://localhost:$HGPORT full-bundle
+  applying clone bundle from http://localhost:$HGPORT1/full.hg
+  adding changesets
+  adding manifests
+  adding file changes
+  added 2 changesets with 2 changes to 2 files
+  finished applying clone bundle
+  searching for changes
+  no changes found
diff --git a/tests/test-help.t b/tests/test-help.t
--- a/tests/test-help.t
+++ b/tests/test-help.t
@@ -248,8 +248,10 @@  Test extension help:
        blackbox      log repository events to a blackbox for debugging
        bugzilla      hooks for integrating with the Bugzilla bug tracker
        censor        erase file content at a given revision
        churn         command to display statistics about repository history
+       clonebundles  server side extension to advertise pre-generated bundles to
+                     seed clones.
        color         colorize output from some commands
        convert       import revisions from foreign VCS repositories into
                      Mercurial
        eol           automatically manage newlines in repository files
@@ -1068,8 +1070,10 @@  Test keyword search help
    update    update working directory (or switch revisions)
   
   Extensions:
   
+   clonebundles server side extension to advertise pre-generated bundles to seed
+                clones.
    prefixedname matched against word "clone"
    relink       recreates hardlinks between repository clones
   
   Extension Commands: